The UT of J&K has been regarded as heaven on earth, and is also called the biomass of state of India. The biodiversity of the rich area of J&K happens to be one of the 26 hotspots in India with high endemicity. The varied plant life also contributes to food and habitat needs of wild and domesticated in the state. On the other hand, the faunal component of biodiversity of the state is rich with interesting and unique forms both in the forest zone and above forest line. The variety of animal forms ranges from higher groups like vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and lower groups like invertebrates including insects and even unicellular micro-organisms.


The flora of Himalayan Kashmir comprises about 3054 species. About 506 species found in Jammu. These figures only include the angiosperms, gymnosperms and pteridophytes. The plants of western Himalayas are well known for their medicinal properties. This area is store house of medicinal and aromatic plants which are used in pharmaceutical and perfume industries. The list includes 55 species of important medicinal and aromatic plants. There are 11 medicinal plants in temperate, cold arid regions of J&K. Several medicinal plants grow wild in temperate and alpine habitats.


The faunal diversity of J&K is diverse due to its unique location and climatic condition. 16% of Indian mammals are present in state including birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies. 75 species of mammals belonging to 54 genera, 21 families and 8 orders.Carnivores represents 32% of the total mammalian faun of the UT.